Measures of self-reported change

The PMA Retrospective Questionnaire (PMARQ; first used in 1984) is given immediately after the five basic longitudinal marker tests have been administered. Subjects are asked to rate whether they think their performance at the current testing session was the same, better, or worse then when they took the tests 7 years earlier. Data collected with this questionnaire show only a modest correlation between subject’s estimate of change and magnitude of actual change in 1984 (Schaie, Willis, & O’Hanlon, 1994). The major function of this questionnaire, therefore, is to provide semi-projective data on the subjects’ perception of changes in their abilities over time. The PMARQ is also used in the post-test phase of our training studies to obtain the participants’ subjective rating of experienced training gain.​